Archives du mot-clé artistic practices

English Editorial 2017

Edition 2017: Graphic Scores

Music is irreducible to the spoken word, it is well understood, no language structure can account for it. In order to say that there is nothing that can be said about music, nevertheless one has to say it.

The idea that sounds cannot be represented by signs, images, by the visual world in general, is less often expressed. Any sonority that cannot be simply measured – as for example timbre in its global complexity – could not be, according to this enunciation, reduced to a system of signs. The accumulation of signs necessary to represent the totality of the sound matter would render the notation unreadable. In order to demonstrate the impossibility of representation, one has to demonstrate it by signs.

Already two paragraphs full of pointless signs for expressing the pointlessness of the effort to conciliate the sonic and visual realms. Yet, in order to make music, one has beforehand to telephone each other, to talk – a language on the subject of music – and then to take from one’s pocket a diary in which to inscribe the place and time of the encounter – a graphic writing linked to the practice of music. Even in the case of an impromptu encounter, the very decision to make music together can be considered as an inscription. Would that allow the naming of this type of process “graphic score”?

The visual elements inscribed on the page of the diary do not prescribe sounds that will be produced at this date, in that place which is associated with it, and with the persons who have written the same “score” in their note book. The graphics in the diary, foreseeing what will happen at such a date and in such place allows the definition of the time and space of the music, the partial planning of its unfolding. As for the rest, anything may happen. The sound combinations and their eventual meaning have to be elaborated at the moment of the encounter.

Graphics, which determine something different from the musical materiality in itself, give that delicious impression of needing no mediation whatsoever: everybody can have access to it in an immediate manner without difficulty. The presence of a score assumes the same function as a totem in the religious and enigmatic sense: it implies the obligation to do an action, some movements, some sounds, and its absence paralyzes. But if the mediations are not provided by the graphics, they remain necessary elements for action to take place. One has either to call on some resources – knowledge or know-how – already present in the performer’s realm, or to invent some kinds of mediations – codes, rules, different means to transform the visual into sound. The advantage that graphic scores have in relation to the dryness of the daily notebook inscriptions, is that they contain generally enough salient elements for giving rise to codes, either in an existing framework (recalling for example notational systems already in use), or in some framework to be invented by the participants. Everybody can have access to action, on the condition that the lack of mediations specified in the graphic score could give rise to mediations – instituted or to be invented – appropriate to the situation of the participants.

This is precisely the PaaLabRes project, to conciliate free sounds and academic language, the profound implication of artists in production and the access for all to practices, the well identified objects with those which have to be continuously re-actualized, the private space with public presentations. And let’s not forget hybrid activities, which get artists to think outside their narrow professional corporate world. In other words our aim is to conciliate the visual world irreducible to sounds and the sound world impossible to represent; in this way to go beyond the “readable”.


The use of graphic scores is today widespread in extremely varied contexts and aesthetical modes of behavior. The new edition “Graphic Scores” of the PaalabRes site [] shows a good sampling of this diversity, without pretending to cover the field in an exhaustive manner. For us, the confrontation of realizations by very different groups is of particular importance: professionals, amateurs, students, young pupils, electroacoustic realizations, contributions based on original works by visual artists. This diversity, which is also a good representation of the democratic character of practices implying graphic scores, is expressed in particular around Treatise (1963-67) by Cornelius Cardew, a referent work for many musicians: seven interpretations of this piece are presented.

This new edition is presented in the form of a roadmap, inspired by of the metro map of our first formal proposition (2016 Edition), taking as basis a photography of a painting by Lyon artist Christian Lhopital (we thank him for his generous contribution). We took advantage of the presence of these seismic “faults” to use them as lines for connections between what we call “known places” [“lieux-dits”] in a meaningful way. Some contributions are grouped together on the map in regions (Treatise, films, documentation). The map consists of two big categories:

Some artistic realizations

  1. An artistic performance (audio or video) of a graphic score, which can be triggered by clicking on the “known place”, that is the name of the contribution. An explicative, theoretical or poetical text appears when one goes from one known place to either of the two neighboring “known places”, in the form of a collage with the text of the neighboring contribution.
  2. Performances of Cardew’s Treatise, which are clustered in one part of the map and are presented in the same format as in (a).
  3. Three musical illustrations of films.

Some contributions with texts
which serve as reference

  1. David Gutkin, “Drastic or Plastic?: Threads from Karlheins Stockhausen’s “Music und Graphik,” 1959”, Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 50, N° 1-2 (Winter/Summer 2012), pp. 255-305 (,for historical and critical perspectives.
  2. “Réflexions sur les partitions graphiques” by Etienne Lamaison, extracts from his recent PhD thesis on non-procedural graphic scores.
  3. Interview of Pascal Pariaud on his pedagogical practices linked to graphic scores.
  4. A collage of texts (in French) on Cardew’s Treatise (by Cornelius Cardew, John Tilbury, David Gutkin, Christopher Williams, Matthieu Saladin, Keith Rowe, Arturas Bumsteinas, Laurent Dailleau, Jim O’Rourke and Jean-Charles François)
  5. Interview of Xavier Saïki, member of the collective Ishtar, on Cardew’s Treatise.
  6. A small area called “Documentation” with contributions by Carl Bergstroem-Nielsen on his International Improvised Music Archive (IIMA) and by Ensemble Aleph on a graphic scores exhibition (“Musique et Graphisme”) organized at Issy-les-Moulineaux during the 1980s (names of the “known places” in white without black edging).

You can move freely in the new map by clicking on any of the names of the known places. But the spirit of our approach is definitively on the side of taking a path following the lines, or seismic “faults” (as in “San Andreas fault”): the strolling from one known place to its neighbor reveals a collage of texts or spoken words provided by the contributors. We strongly encourage you to follow a pathway along on a fault line.

The site is in French. Whenever possible an English abstract of an article is provided. The sources of the texts already published in English are indicated. Original contributions for in English are provided in pdf format.

The Collective PaaLabRes: Samuel Chagnard, Guillaume Dussably, Jean-Charles François, Laurent Grappe, Karine Hahn, Gilles Laval, Noémi Lefebvre, Pascal Pariaud, Nicolas Sidoroff, Gérald Venturi.


Important information about the practical conditions for realizing the 2016 and 2017 editions of the digital space “PaaLabRes”

The totality of the production of the digital space “PaaLabRes” – architecture of the site, creation, translations, technical aspects of the realization – is done with a complete absence of financial means and on the basis of volunteer work. The digital space comes into reality thanks to the participation of artists who can do this because they are salaried in some educational institution or retired from this duty, and who give their time within the limits of their possibilities. These same persons additionally have to carry on with their own research and/or artistic projects, often pursuing a doctoral degree. Some actions (i.e. workshops) carried out by the PaaLabRes collective generate a small percentage in order to pay for the site’s hosting services.

But how can web platforms and communities developing Internet tools (of “framasoft” type) continue to fight the system? How is it possible to escape the invasion of publicity, which is the counterpart of Internet being free of charge?

In the first 2016 Edition, for example, we used “youtube” in order to realize the 72 Itineraries-Songs. This was an “easy” solution to the problem of the enormous space taken by these files, but one which imposed (through “Google”) the presence of publicity. For the 2017 Edition, we have decided to use the platform “viméo”, which appeared to us to correspond more to our sense of ethics, but the inconvenience of the presence of publicity (“Staffpicks”) remains. The trick we have designed to counter it consists in giving ample time to users to click on internal links of the site before the appearance of any publicity.

The issue of the lack of means for alternative research projects and for the use of digital communication tools remains to be debated. All remarks and good ideas on this subject would be very welcome. And more generally any critical feedback on our endeavors would be of great use to us.
Your comments (in english) can be sent at this address: contact[chez]


English : Editorial

PaaLabRes : Artistic Practices in Acts, Laboratory of Research

Welcome on the first version of the digital space PaaLabRes.

PaaLabRes (Pratiques Artistiques en Actes, Laboratoire de Recherches or Artistic Practices in Acts, Research Laboratory) is a musicians’ collective in existence since 2011, which attempts to define the outlines of artistic research led by the practitioners themselves, concerning artistic expressions that do not result in definitive works. In an initial text[1], the collective was defined in the following manner:

“Electronic technologies created the conditions for the emergence of a great diversity of artistic practices, by  allowing considerable access to information about the world and its history. Many practices differentiate themselves both from institutions representing sacred traditions and from commercial cultural industries, in order to invent everyday – very often in a collective manner – their own “art of doing”[2]. We will call these artistic practices “nomadic[3] and transverse”, because they tend to refuse to be fixed in definitive works by continuously reworking matters and techniques according to particular situations, and they tend also to refuse any aesthetic labels (or labels connected to professional identities) by tinkering on an everyday basis along transverse paths.”

PaaLabRes objective is to bring together in action, reflection and research, diverse practices that cannot be closely identified with the definitively fixed patrimonial art forms, nor with the ones imposed by cultural industries. These practices often open ways to collective creation, to improvisation, and to collaborative projects between the arts, including other interactive forms of production.

Questioning the autonomy of art with respect to society, they are grounded in everyday interactions and in contexts that mix art with sociology, philosophy, in transmission activities and education. Because of these features, these practices remain unstable and variable; they are really nomadic and transversal.

The aim of  PaaLabRes is to mix different media in order to develop original art/research facilitated by Internet communication technology. The objectives are to bridge the gaps between a) legitimate research articles and more experimental or poetical texts and more simple reflective contributions; b) artistic productions and artistic education, c) artistic concerns and societal or political questions; d) a very large diversity of artistic categories, styles or fields. The site will be presented in the form of a subway train map, with a central circular line and several other lines.

The central circular line represents the « PaaLabRes Cartography (Cartographie PaaLabRes) ». The project of this particular line is based on nine parts (stations) representing the major concepts of the collective PaaLabRes: « Nomadic », « Transversal », « Experimental », « Discipline », « Praxis », « Music to be made », « Cultural Operations », « Orality », « Ecology of Practices ». The reader of the cartography chooses one of these concepts, then, in selecting a second one, an Itinerary-Song appears that links the first concept to related poetry, audio or video sequence, spoken words, music, or graphics,..) There are seventy-two Itineraries-Songs in all. This idea is inspired by the practice of Australian aborigines. The philosopher Daniel Charles opens his chapter on « Nomadic Music » (citing Bruce Chatwin) by a description of traditional Aboriginal practices, which consist in connecting their songs or poetry to itineraries from one location to another:

Australia is covered by a network of tracks, which make it virtually (…) a musical score. These tracks are not traced on the ground like paths or trails, they remain invisible to strangers. There are landmarks – a rock, a hill, a water point, a sand bank… – which are sacred sites, linked to as many mythological episodes, and the song or poem leads from one site to the next, measuring the distance that separates them. The song is itinerary and the itinerary the song.

Thus, in a similar and nomadic way, the group Paalabres is developing  conceptual « sites » and  itinerary-songs, which seek to organize the passage from one site to the next.

Other subway lines will represent specific articles or contributions (see Paarcours for details).

  • « Improvisation » with a French translation of George Lewis’s « Afterword to “Improvised Music after 1950” ».
  • « Political (Politique) » with a double contribution by Karine Hahn and Nicolas Sidoroff on their current research on political issues connected with musical practices [Music, research and politique]; a double contribution [IO+IOU] by Benjamin Boretz “I / O” and Jean-Charles François “IOU” (to be published in English in Open Space Magazine); a slam by Jean-Charles François on “Culture in the Plural” inspired by texts by Michel de Certeau.
  • « Artistic research (Recherche artistique) » with a review by Jean-Charles François of the book written by Kathleen Coessens, Darla Crispin et Anne Douglas, The Artistic Turn, A Manifesto; and the station “débat”, a report on a debate organized in November 2015 by PaaLabRes on the issues of artistic research.
  • « Projects and actions (Compte-rendu de pratique) », with an article by Noémi Lefebvre on the musical group Gunkanjima, a particular project led by one of the PaaLabRes members, the electric guitarist Gilles Laval.

In the future other lines will be added as needed.

The PaaLabRes collective hopes that the formula of digital space, which is in the process of being developed will be able to host varied contributions, from original hybrid artistic forms to fundamental reflections on today’s artistic practices. It is very important to us to be able to present a diversity in the domains of artistic production, of cultural expressions, of different ways to present research, and of mixing medias. Our project is to develop a dialog between the detachment of formal research and the lightness of discourses without objects, passing through the polemist’s irony, and the vigor of political debates. What is at stake is the place of artistic practices in the complicated context of our multiple society, in three strongly interactive areas: practices, teaching/learning, research, with their particular systemic approaches.

The collective PaaLabRes — 2016
Samuel Chagnard, Jean-Charles François, Laurent Grappe,
Karine Hahn, Gilles Laval, Noémi Lefebvre,
Pascal Pariaud, Nicolas Sidoroff, Gérald Venturi.


[1] See « 1. Paalabres. Projets de Pratiques Artistiques en Actes, Laboratoire de Recherche », in Revue&Corrigée N°95, March 2013.

[2] See Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall, University of California Press, Berkeley 1984.

[3] See Daniel Charles, Musiques nomades, Paris : Editions Kimé, 1998.


English : Paarticipation

PaaLabRes: Forum of Discussion

The digital space PaaLabRes should also be a discussion forum: a space for debate, interactions, comments, and suggestions. The exact form of this interactive forum between the collective PaaLabRes and the site’s users remains to be developed in detail.

It is very important for us to have immediate feedback on the technical aspects of the site, because we are developing it with our own limited means. Critical comments on the way users navigate in the architecture of the site, indicating what should be improved, are welcome.

Our intention is to organize the discussion forum in several territories. Firstly, a space for brief contributions by the site’s visitors (one page maximum): commentaries, critical feedback, encouragements, and suggestions. Secondly, longer texts concerning useful information for the site’s community: stories of various experiences, events, conferences, publications that can have a particular interest relative to the questions raised by PaaLabRes. Thirdly, more substantial propositions: research articles, artistic forms, poetical or political texts, etc. Finally, we also hope to organize specific spaces for debate linked to some of the site’s publications (see the end of the text of the station “Débat” on artistic research).

Calls for contributions on particular subject matters will be launched periodically, in order to enrich the existing lines of the site, or to create new ones.

The collective PaaLabRes is in charge of the process of presentation and editing of the various contributions in a spirit of exchange.

The digital space PaaLabRes is addressed to a French speaking audience, to those who do not master foreign languages, notably the English language. The use of French for most of its content is therefore deliberately claimed. At the same time, we are dedicated to be open to international contexts. This is why some translations are already proposed on the site and they will play an important role in future publications. Bilingual publications are possible in the case of original texts, which have not been already published. Each station includes an abstract in English or references to English versions of the texts. Contributions in English are very welcome.